The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 to Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Gregory P. Winter. One half of the prize goes to Arnold while the other half is shared by Smith and Winter.

Arnold was awarded for her work in directing evolution of enzymes. Her methods are being routinely used to make new catalysts.

Smith was given the honour for developing a method known as phage display, where a bacteriophage – a virus that infects bacteria – can be used to evolve new proteins. Winter won the accolade for utilizing phage display for the directed evolution of antibodies.

Source: The Nobel Prize